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Category Archives: Optical Windows and Spectrum
Jim Jachetta has compiled everything there is to know about Fiber Optics into 20 pages.
Whether you are a greenhorn or a professional, this will teach or refresh you on the topic of Fiber Optic Video Transmission. This guide is perfect at any level. First, we cover the basics. Then, we work up to the bleeding edge with 4K fiber optic video transmission. This guide is packed with practical examples. It provides the knowledge you need to become an expert quickly. Fiber Optic Video Transmission is regarded as low in latency and highly reliable. You may be exceedingly aware that Fiber Optics have trumped the speed of copper cable. You may also be aware that it provides unprecedented reliability that typical wireless setups cannot. Yet, it’s likely that you could use a refresher on the topic. The industry is moving fast. The applications of fiber optic video transmission are changing. It’s up to you to stay on top of it all. This user’s guide is the way to do that. We cover modern applications, end-to-end design, multiplexing, routing switchers, and the works!
Benefits of Fiber-Optic Video Transmission:
- Longer Distances
- Multiple Signals
- Noise Immunity
- Ease of Installation
- Connector Adaptability
- Ease of Splicing
|From time to time in my user’s guide, I may also show you some interesting fiber optic products you can take a look at such as these two below.|
|FVT/FVR-5400-3G, VidOptic 4 Channel
3G HDSDI Fiber Optic Transport Card
with 4×4 Matrix for openGear
|VidOptic Camera Back 4K & HD SDI
Fiber Optic System
One of my favorite subjects is the transmission of video over fiber optic cable. I have had the pleasure of working on fiber optic implementations with Broadcasters to cover Presidential Elections and with Integrators on projects like the Las Vegas City Center.
Because of this passion, I am starting a multi-part series on the subject of Fiber Optic Video Transmission. My goal in writing this is to speak from my experience to make a topic that is scary to many, easy to understand and accessible so you can implement your own systems. I hope to do it in a humorous way relating my successes and challenges implementing many of these systems.
Anyone who knows me has also seen my passion for problem solving and doing the “impossible” and “never been done before”. I enjoy troubleshooting multi-million dollar fiber optic systems to discover a bad $20 patch cord or dirty fiber optic connector. The good news is that once a fiber optic system is up and running I know you will get many years of reliable operation.
In this series I will start with the basics and work my way up to the bleeding edge with 4K video fiber optic transmission. The series is perfect for the beginner and a good review for the expert. Clink these links to go to my first posts:
I’ve had a great time putting this series on Fiber Optic Video Transmission together for you and I hope you get great insight and some practical tips for your particular situation. From time to time I may also show you some interesting fiber optic products you can take a look at like these two below. If you have any questions about any of the content you can reply to this email or contact me at 949-777-5435 x 1001.
|FVT/FVR-5400-3G, VidOptic Series, 4 Channel 3G HDSDI Fiber Optic Transport Card with 4×4 Matrix for openGear||SilverBack 4K & HD SDI Fiber Optic Camera Back Camera Mount System|
Watch for my next installment in about 4 weeks. Please click to download additional white papers and presentations on wireless, webcasting, streaming and fiber optics. Thank you.
All the best,
President and CEO
Optical Windows and Spectrum
Wavelength remains a significant factor in fiber-optic developments. Figure 3 illustrates the wavelength “windows.” Table 1 shows the wavelength of each optical window and the typical application for multimode (MM) or single-mode (SM) operation.
The earliest fiber-optic systems were developed at an operating wavelength of about 850 nm. This wavelength corresponded to the so called “first window” in a silica-based optical fiber, as shown in Figure 3. This window refers to the wavelength region that will offer a low optical loss that sits between several large absorption peaks. The absorption peaks are caused primarily by moisture in the fiber and Rayleigh scat- tering, which is the scattering of light due to random variations in the index of refraction caused by irregu- larities in the structure of the glass.
The attraction to the 850 nm region came from its ability to use low-cost infrared LEDs and low-cost sili- con detectors. As technology progressed, the first win- dow lost its appeal due to its relatively high 3 dB/km losses. Most companies began to exploit the “second window” at 1310 nm with a lower attenuation of about 0.5 dB/km. In late 1977, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone developed the “third window” at 1550 nm. The third window offers an optical loss of about 0.2 dB/km.
The three optical windows—850 nm, 1310 nm, and 1550 nm—are used in many fiber-optic installations today. The visible wavelength near 660 nm is used in low-end, short-distance systems. Each wavelength has its advantages. Longer wavelengths offer higher performance, but always come with higher cost.
Table 2 provides the typical optic attenuation for each of the common wavelengths versus the fiber- optic cable diameter. A narrower core fiber has less optical attenuation.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU), an international organization that promotes world- wide telecommunications standards, has specified six transmission bands for fiber-optic transmission. The first is the O band (“original band”), which is from 1260–1310 nm. The second band is the E band (“extended band”), which is 1360–1460 nm. The third band is the S band (“short band”), which is 1460–1530nm. The fourth band in the spectrum is the C band (“conventional band”), which is 1530–1565 nm. The fifth band is the L band (“longer band”), which is 1560–1625 nm. The sixth band is the U band (“ultra band”), which is 1625–1675 nm. There is a seventh band that has not been defined by the ITU that is in the 850 nm region. It is mostly used in private networks. The seventh band is widely used in high-speed computer networking, video distribution, and corporate applications.
Researchers have attempted to develop new fiber optics that could reduce costs or improve performance. Some alternative fiber materials have found specialized usage. Plastic fiber is ideal for short transmission distances that are ideal for home theater installations. Lower cost glass fiber reduces the need to develop longer distance plastic fiber and the higher cost of copper wire has expanded glass fiber-optic cable applications.