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Category Archives: Snells Law
Jim Jachetta has compiled everything there is to know about Fiber Optics into 20 pages.
Whether you are a greenhorn or a professional, this will teach or refresh you on the topic of Fiber Optic Video Transmission. This guide is perfect at any level. First, we cover the basics. Then, we work up to the bleeding edge with 4K fiber optic video transmission. This guide is packed with practical examples. It provides the knowledge you need to become an expert quickly. Fiber Optic Video Transmission is regarded as low in latency and highly reliable. You may be exceedingly aware that Fiber Optics have trumped the speed of copper cable. You may also be aware that it provides unprecedented reliability that typical wireless setups cannot. Yet, it’s likely that you could use a refresher on the topic. The industry is moving fast. The applications of fiber optic video transmission are changing. It’s up to you to stay on top of it all. This user’s guide is the way to do that. We cover modern applications, end-to-end design, multiplexing, routing switchers, and the works!
Benefits of Fiber-Optic Video Transmission:
- Longer Distances
- Multiple Signals
- Noise Immunity
- Ease of Installation
- Connector Adaptability
- Ease of Splicing
|From time to time in my user’s guide, I may also show you some interesting fiber optic products you can take a look at such as these two below.|
|FVT/FVR-5400-3G, VidOptic 4 Channel
3G HDSDI Fiber Optic Transport Card
with 4×4 Matrix for openGear
|VidOptic Camera Back 4K & HD SDI
Fiber Optic System
One of my favorite subjects is the transmission of video over fiber optic cable. I have had the pleasure of working on fiber optic implementations with Broadcasters to cover Presidential Elections and with Integrators on projects like the Las Vegas City Center.
Because of this passion, I am starting a multi-part series on the subject of Fiber Optic Video Transmission. My goal in writing this is to speak from my experience to make a topic that is scary to many, easy to understand and accessible so you can implement your own systems. I hope to do it in a humorous way relating my successes and challenges implementing many of these systems.
Anyone who knows me has also seen my passion for problem solving and doing the “impossible” and “never been done before”. I enjoy troubleshooting multi-million dollar fiber optic systems to discover a bad $20 patch cord or dirty fiber optic connector. The good news is that once a fiber optic system is up and running I know you will get many years of reliable operation.
In this series I will start with the basics and work my way up to the bleeding edge with 4K video fiber optic transmission. The series is perfect for the beginner and a good review for the expert. Clink these links to go to my first posts:
I’ve had a great time putting this series on Fiber Optic Video Transmission together for you and I hope you get great insight and some practical tips for your particular situation. From time to time I may also show you some interesting fiber optic products you can take a look at like these two below. If you have any questions about any of the content you can reply to this email or contact me at 949-777-5435 x 1001.
|FVT/FVR-5400-3G, VidOptic Series, 4 Channel 3G HDSDI Fiber Optic Transport Card with 4×4 Matrix for openGear||SilverBack 4K & HD SDI Fiber Optic Camera Back Camera Mount System|
Watch for my next installment in about 4 weeks. Please click to download additional white papers and presentations on wireless, webcasting, streaming and fiber optics. Thank you.
All the best,
President and CEO
Early fiber optics exhibited high loss that limited transmission distances. To correct this, glass fibers were developed that included a separate glass coating. The innermost region of the fiber, the core, carried the light, while the glass coating or cladding prevented the light from leaking out of the core by refracting the light back into the inner boundaries of the core. Snell’s Law explained this concept. It states that the angle at which a light reflects as it passes from one material to another depends on the refractive indices of the two materials.
In the case of fiber optics, this is the refractive index between the core and the cladding. Figure 2 illustrates the equations for Snell’s Law. In this figure, the upper region of the frame, n1, indicates a higher refractive index than the lower region n2. The refractive index of the upper region is designated as n1 while the lower region refractive index is n2. The figure on the top shows the case with the angle of the indices less than the critical angle. Note that the angle of the light changes at the interface between the higher refractive index, in region 1, and the lower refractive index, in region 2. In the center figure, the angle of indices has increased to the critical angle. At this point all the refracted light rays travel parallel to the interface region. In the figure on the bottom, the angle of indices has increased to a value greater than the critical angle. In this case 100% of the light refracts at the interface region.
Advancements in laser technology next elevated the fiber-optics industry. Only the light-emitting diode or its higher powered counterpart, the laser diode, had the potential to generate large amounts of light in a focused beam small enough to be useful for fiber optic transport.
Communications engineers quickly noticed the importance of lasers and their higher modulation frequency capabilities. Light has the capacity to carry 10,000 times more information than radio frequencies. Because environmental conditions, such as rain, snow, and fog, disrupt laser light, a transmission scheme other than free space was needed. In 1966, Charles
Kao and Charles Hockham, working at the standard Telecommunications Laboratory, presented optical fibers as an ideal transmission medium, assuming fiber optic attenuation could be kept under 20 dB per kilometer. Optical fibers of the day exhibited losses of 1,000 dB/km or more. At a loss of 20 dB/km, 99% of the light would be lost over only 1000 meters (3300 ft).
Scientists theorized that the high levels of loss were due to impurities in the glass and not the glass itself. At the time in 1970, an optical loss of 20 dB/km was within the capabilities of electronics and opto- electronic components for short distances (less than 1 km) but not for longer distances (greater than 1 km). Dr. Robert Maurer, Donald Keck, and Peter Schultz of Corning succeeded in developing a glass fiber that exhibited attenuation at less than 20 dB/km, the limit for making fiber optics a usable technology. Other advances of the day, such as semiconductor chips, optical detectors, and optical connectors, initiated the true beginnings of the fiber-optic communications industry.